Pattern of Retinopathy: Although the locus of toxic damage is parafoveal in many eyes, Asian patients often show an extramacular pattern of damage. Dose: We recommend a maximum daily HCQ use of 5.0 mg/kg real weight, which correlates better with risk than ideal weight. Years taking hydroxychloroquine now burning skin Falciparum gb4 chloroquine ic50 Chloroquine mode of autophagy inhibition Early detection of disease and cessation of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine therapy are paramount, particularly before the occurrence of structural retinal pigment epithelium damage.2, 3 Cessation of the drug does not prevent the progression of retinopathy or reverse vision loss, but conservation of the retinal pigment epithelium is a. Rationale for Screening. Hydroxychloroquine and CQ retinopathy are not reversible, and cellular damage may progress even after the drugs are stopped. When retinopathy is not recognized until a bull’seye appears, the disease can progress for years, often with foveal thinning and an eventual loss of visual acuity. Hydroxychloroquine HCQ is efficacious for various diseases1,2, but can produce “bulls-eye” retinopathy that decreases vision even after discontinuance3,4. Retinopathy can be present in 7.5% of patients after 5 or more years of HCQ treatment, increasing to 20% after 20 years2. Risk of Toxicity: The risk of toxicity is dependent on daily dose and duration of use. There are no similar demographic data for CQ, but dose comparisons in older literature suggest using 2.3 mg/kg real weight. Effect of disease stage of progression of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy Monitoring for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy Eye, Recommendations on Screening for Chloroquine and. Plaquenil perioperativeChloroquine phosphate marineCan plaquenil help with hairlossPlaquenil special considerations Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy after short-term therapy. Effect of Disease Stage on Progression of Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy. tomography and assess the value of early screening for the. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy after short-term therapy. Hydroxychloroquine Ocular Toxicity Lessons Learned The.. Effect of disease stage on progression of hydroxychloroquine.. Expanded spectral domain-OCT findings in the early detection of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy and changes following drug cessation David R. Lally, 1, 2 Jeffrey S. Heier, 2 Caroline Baumal, 1 Andre J. Witkin, 1 Steven Maler, 1 Chirag P. Shah, 2 Elias Reichel, 1 Nadia K. Waheed, 1 Igor Bussel, 1 Adam Rogers, 1 and Jay S. Duker 1, 2 Hydroxychloroquine HCQ is toxic to the retina in proportion to daily dose and duration of use, causing a characteristic retinopathy in Caucasian patients with loss of photoreceptors and eventually RPE changes in a ring around the fovea. 1,2 The mechanism of this toxicity is unclear, as animal experiments have shown the drug can affect all retinal layers, 3 whereas the damage seen in clinical. Chloroquine and/or hydroxychloroquine clear slowly from the body, so the full effects may not manifest for 3-6 months. Slow, continued deterioration of visual function may occur even after the drug is discontinued.