ANSWER Chloroquine-resistant malaria is exactly what it sounds like—particular types of malaria which are not cured by treatment with chloroquine. Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. Plaquenil watery eyes Plaquenil tablet omhuld 200mg Plaquenil lower plateltls In most areas chloroquine plus primaquine is the first-line treatment, but this status quo is increasingly threatened by the emergence and spread of chloroquine-resistant P vivax. Unequivocal evidence now exists of high-grade chloroquine resistance on the islands of New Guinea and Indonesia, 18,19 and evidence is accumulating for declining. DRUG RESISTANT MALARIA Chloroquine resistance Chloroquine is ineffective in almost all malaria endemic countries In India chloroquine resistance was first detected in 1973 in Assam. Severe in northeast and southeastern regions of India with high morbidity and mortality. Of drug resistance including its determinants, current status in diverse geographical areas, molecular markers and their implications to limit the advent, spread and intensification of drug resistant malaria. Key words Chloroquine-resistant malaria – molecular markers – pfmdr-1 polymorphism – sulphadoxine & pyrimethamine Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. Chloroquine resistance areas Malaria - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book Travelers' Health CDC, DRUG RESISTANT MALARIA CURRENT STATUS Plaquenil stop hair lossNortriptyline and plaquenilGood rx cost hydroxychloroquine By the late 1980s, resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and to mefloquine was also prevalent on the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar Thai-Burmese borders, rendering them established multidrug resistant MDR areas. Chloroquine resistance spread across Africa during the 1980s, and severe resistance is especially found in east Africa. Epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria - The Lancet.. Drug resistance in malaria - National Institute of Malaria.. Malaria Prophylaxis. The ABCD of Malaria Prophylaxis. Patient. Areas with Malaria Drug Resistance 2 Malaria Species 3 Recommended Chemoprophylaxis 4 Key Information Needed and Helpful Links to Assess Need for Prophylaxis for Select Countries; Cambodia Present throughout the country, including Siem Reap city. None in the city of Phnom Penh or at the temple complex at Angkor Wat. Chloroquine Mefloquine. P. During the past year, confirmed chloroquine-resistant infections have been described from specific areas in Zambia 3 and Sudan 4; previously, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Madagascar, and the Comoros Islands were acknowledged to have transmission of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Certain types of malaria, resistant strains, and complicated cases typically require different or additional medication.