As regards cancer, autophagy may play a tumor suppressive role by preserving cellular integrity during tumor development and by possible contribution to cell death. However, autophagy may also exert oncogenic effects by promoting tumor cell survival and preventing cell death, for example, upon anticancer treatment. Hydroxychloroquine vs chloroquine Plaquenil for urticaria Hydroxychloroquine side effects medbullets Chloroquine in the Kidney, the Double-Edged Sword of Autophagy. The use of chloroquine in combination with other chemotherapeutic reagents may enhance cancer treatment 8, 29, but normal cells also use autophagy to maintain homeostasis, and inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine may sensitize not only cancer cells, but also normal organs to chemotherapy. Chloroquine is commonly used to study the role of endosomal acidification in cellular processes 2, 3, such as the signaling of intracellular TLRs. Moreover, Chloroquine inhibits autophagy as it raises the lysosomal pH, which leads to inhibition of both fusion of autophagosome with lysosome and lysosomal protein degradation 4. The endoplasmic reticulum ER is a major intracellular store of Ca 2+, with a resting Ca 2+ concentration of several hundred μM 4. This composes a dynamic pool of Ca 2+ that functions in processes ranging from proliferation to cell death, and of note, autophagy. Glucose transporters, mainly from GLUT family, which are often upregulated in cancer, are also prominent targets for autophagy induction. The major factors influencing autophagy are Ca channels like voltage-gated T- and L-type channels, IP3 receptors, or CRAC are involved in autophagy regulation. Calcium chloroquine autophagy review Pharmacological modulation of autophagy therapeutic., Chloroquine & Hydroxychloroquine supporting chemo. Chloroquine dose during pregnancy Posttranslational regulation of macroautophagy hereafter autophagy, including phosphorylating and dephosphorylating components of the autophagy-related Atg core machinery and the corresponding upstream transcriptional factors, is important for the precise modulation of autophagy levels. The symphony of autophagy and calcium signaling. The intersection of lysosomal and endoplasmic reticulum.. Autophagy and innate immunity Review InvivoGen. Hepatic stellate cells HSCs are the major sources of ECM proteins in the liver; thus, the proliferation and expansion of HSCs is a key step in the fibrogenic process 8. During liver injury, HSCs transform into the myofibroblast‐like phenotype, characterized by decreased intracellular vitamin A content. Verapamil, the L-type calcium channel blocker, induced autophagy-like processinhumanadenocarcinomaCOLOcellsasjudged by ultrastructural studies. e other L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, decreased proliferation and migration and evoked autophagy in endometrial carcinoma HEC-A cells. Autophagy The spotlight for cellular stress responses. This review discusses the machinery of autophagy, the molecular web that connects autophagy to various stress responses like inflammation, hypoxia, ER stress, and various other pathologic conditions. via 3-methyl adenine treatment/genetic knockouts of autophagy genes/chloroquine.