Previously referred to as “Resochin”, Chloroquine was first discovered in 1924 at Bayer laboratories. Its first use was initially ignored as it was found to be toxic to people. Define 4 hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil renal toxicity Sep 15, 2001 These include reports of PfCRT markers and chloroquine treatment outcomes in Mali, Cameroon, Sudan, and Mozambique, where both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains are still widespread. Multi-drug resistant malaria In areas of Thailand near the borders with Cambodia and Myanmar and in Western Cambodia, P. falciparum infections do not respond to chloroquine or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, and sensitivity to quinine is reduced. Treatment failures of over 50% are also being reported. Chloroquine-resistant P vivax was first reported in 1989, almost 30 years after chloroquine-resistant P falciparum was first noted. 9,10 The absence of reliable, robust, sensitive methods for detection, mapping, and monitoring of antimalarial drug efficacy in P vivax has almost certainly contributed to the delayed recognition of this emerging. These trials showed that chloroquine eliminated malaria and was appropriate to be used as an antimalarial drug. Thus, it was not until World War II that the government of the United States sponsored the clinical trials of chloroquine as an antimalarial drug. Chloroquine resistant and sensitive areas Drug resistance in malaria - World Health Organization, Malaria Prophylaxis – Malaria Site Chloroquine therapeutic class Chloroquine is used extensively in malaria endemic areas in Africa to treat the uncomplicated form of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the efficiency of chloroquine has been severely impacted by the recent development of chloroquine resistant plasmodium falciparum parasites. Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum - microbewiki. Global extent of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax a.. Malaria - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book Travelers' Health.. For prophylaxis only in areas with chloroquine-sensitive malaria-Prophylaxis should start 1 to 2 weeks before travel to malarious areas; should continue weekly same day each week while in malarious areas and for 4 weeks after leaving such areas. Usual Adult Dose for Malaria. Chloroquine susceptibility of the 32 isolates assayed could be categorized into three levels, including S 17 isolates, MR 6 and HR 9, but could also be separated into sensitive and resistant categories with the cut-off value being an IC 50 of 100 nM. The location of study sites with documented chloroquine resistance and chloroquine sensitive P. vivax is shown in Figure 2a and for chloroquine sensitive sites in Figure 2b below. Estimates for chloroquine sensitivity derived from 112 sites. In 50.9% of the sites estimates P. vivax were categorized as resistant.